In the 17th century the region was at the center of several rebellions against the English occupation of Ireland, but after the victory of Prince William of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne the English strengthened their hold over Ireland.
They harshly suppressed the local Irish Catholics, confiscated large swaths of land and brought
in scores of Protestant settlers from England and Scotland.
This policy was so successful that in 1921 Protestants formed the majority in what was to become Northern Ireland and voted to join the UK.
Afterwards the suppression of Catholics continued.
Eventually this led to violent unrest, euphemistically called The Troubles, claiming 3500 deaths.
During the Industrial Revolution Northern Ireland became a world powerhouse and thanks to its linen and shipbuilding industry Belfast flourished.
But those haydays are over and presently the region struggles a bit economically.
Tourism is up though with scores of people visiting the rough northern coasts that feature the Giant Causeway basaltic wonder and the Carrick a Rede rope bridge.