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Windsor Castle
Hadrian's Wall
England, with London as capital, is in size, population and economy by far the largest country of the United Kingdom and hence has dominated Britain's history.
Several early human species lived on and off on English soil, depending on the wildly fluctuating climate. After the last Ice Age hunter gatherers like Cheddar Man showed up and his kin built the world famous Stonehenge.
More modern Beaker People moved in around 2500 BC and almost completely replaced the Neolithic population.

The Romans invaded England in 43 AD and soon had to build Hadrian's Wall to keep the wild and pesky Scotts at bay. When the Romans left, Anglo-Saxons moved in, later followed by Vikings in the 10th century. Things remained fluid til in 1066 William the Conqueror won the battle at Hastings and took a firm hold on England.

In the 17th century Britain competed successfully with other European powers to establish colonies in the East and the West that generated huge trade profits and helped build the mighty
British Empire.

The Industrial Revolution started in England in the 1750's and large scale production changed the world forever.

The British Empire fought victoriously in WWI and WWII, but the Suez fiasco brought an end to Britain's global leadership.

In 1973 the UK reluctantly joined the
EU and in a 2016 Brexit referendum a slim majority voted to leave the EU and go it alone, hoping to rule the waves once again.
History will tell if this decision was a smart one.