Türkiye forms the interface between Europe and Asia, not only geologically but also in terms of history, culture, economics and politics. Only a small portion, called East Thrace, sits on the European continent but it includes  Istanbul, Türkiye's powerhouse and Europe's largest city. The Anatolian Peninsula, also called Asia Minor, is part of Asia and includes Türkiye's capital Ankara.

Most citizens are Turks, but a minority is Kurd and the groups share a long history of mistrust and violence.
Anatolia has been on the crossroads of human history ever since first members of the genus Homo left Africa.
Stone tools from the Gediz River are 1.2 million years old. Hunter-gatherers built the impressive Gobekli Tepe complex around 10.000 BC. Starting 5000 BC, Anatolian farmers migrated into Europe all the way to Ireland.
In the 2nd millennium BC  the region flourished under the Hittite Empire but was hit hard by the  Bronze Age Collapse. The Trojan War is set in this violent period.
Alexander the Great conquered Asia Minor in 333 BC and made it part of the Hellenistic world. Roman influence grew over time and from 300 to 1070 the region was part of the Byzantine Empire.
Türkiye had its heydays during the Ottoman Empire, which lasted till 1923, when Mustafa Kemal Ataturk founded the secular Republic of Turkey.
Today Türkiye is an industrialized country and regional powerhouse, meddling more and more in the troubles and violence of the volatile Middle East.
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