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Japan, with Tokyo as capital, is a country of 6852 islands located east of Korea and Russia with a total length of 3000 km. If Japan would win the Kuril Islands dispute with Russia it could add another dozen islands and hundreds of kms to that list. 
The archipelago sits right on the Pacific Ring of Fire. With 110 active volcanoes, earthquakes are frequent events and sometimes turn devastatingly deadly. 
The magnitude 9.1 quake of 2011 triggered a huge tsunami, killing 20.000 and knocking out the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant into a nuclear meltdown.
As only 25% of Japan is habitable, people tend to huddle together in urban areas with high population densities.  Greater Tokyo Area alone is home to 40 million souls!
First humans appeared 30.000 year ago and developed  the Jomon culture. Later settlers from the continent introduced agriculture and brought the Yayoi culture.
Since 660 BC Japan is ruled by emperors, but from 1185 till 1868 the empire was run byShoguns, military commanders with their dreaded Samurai warriors.

In the 20th century Imperial Japan became an expansionist state and
large parts of Asia. With the attack on Pearl Harbor it started a war with the USA which ended with surrender in 1945 after atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Japan is a parliamentary constitutional  monarchy with the emperor only as the ceremonial head of state.
Today the country is an prosperous economic powerhouse with the world`s 4th largest GDP, but with an aging population and a very low birthrate.