, with Ottawa
as its capital, is the world's second largest country and its 9000 km border with the USA is the
longest border in the world.
The far north is mainly tundra and permafrost.
In summer polar bears roam the shores
of Hudson Bay, waiting for the freeze-up in winter. Despite dire climate change stories, the polar bears here are thriving, abundant
and they are becoming more and more a threat to the local Inuit population.
Canada's western part is mountainous and
the waters along the Pacific coast teem with fish. This is the domain of the fearsome grizzly bear.
Central and east Canada form
the agricultural heart of the country, with Ontario and Quebec being the most populous and industrialized provinces.
gatherers from Siberia arrived more than 25.000 years ago via the Bering Land Bridge
Later the Inuits evolved in the
arctic regions while First Nation tribes developed more to the south.
First Europeans to explore the shores of
Labrador and Newfoundland were the Vikings around 1000 AD but they never created permanent settlements.
In the 16th century France
and Britain set up colonies in the east and soon were at war with each other.
With the Constitution Act of 1867 the contours
of present day Canada were created.
Today Canada is a modern, liberal, very wealthy and ethnically diverse democracy.